The large scale integration and planar scaling of individual system chips is reaching an expensive limit. If individual chips now, and later terrabyte memory blocks, memory macros, and processing cores, can be tightly linked in optimally designed and processed small footprint vertical stacks, then performance can be increased, power reduced and cost contained. This book reviews for the electronics industry engineer, professional and student the critical areas of development for 3D vertical memory chips including: gate-all-around and junction-less nanowire memories, stacked thin film and double gate memories, terrabit vertical channel and vertical gate stacked NAND flash, large scale stacking of Resistance RAM cross-point arrays, and 2.5D/3D stacking of memory and processor chips with through-silicon-via connections now and remote links later. Key features: Presents a review of the status and trends in 3-dimensional vertical memory chip technologies. Extensively reviews advanced vertical memory chip technology and development Explores technology process routes and 3D chip integration in a single reference
An introduction to the physics of electrical insulation, this book presents the physical foundations of this discipline and the resulting applications. It is structured in two parts. The first part presents a mathematical and intuitive approach to dielectrics; various concepts, including polarization, induction, forces and losses are discussed. The second part provides readers with the keys to understanding the physics of solid, liquid and gas insulation. It comprises a phenomenological description of discharges in gas and its resulting applications. Finally, the main electrical properties of liquids and solids are presented, in order to explain the phenomena of electrical degradation, dissipation and breakdown. Contents 1. Mathematical Examination of Dielectrics 2. Physical Examination of Dielectrics Appendix 1. List of Figures Appendix 2. List of Symbols Appendix 3. List of Useful Values Appendix 4. Reminder about Dielectric Spectroscopy Appendix 5. Reminder about Transitory Currents
This book describes the fundamental scientific principles underlying high quality instrumentation used for environmental measurements. It discusses a wide range of in situ sensors employed in practical environmental monitoring and, in particular, those used in surface based measurement systems. It also considers the use of weather balloons to provide a wealth of upper atmosphere data. To illustrate the technologies in use it includes many examples of real atmospheric measurements in typical and unusual circumstances, with a discussion of the electronic signal conditioning, data acquisition considerations and data processing principles necessary for reliable measurements. This also allows the long history of atmospheric measurements to be placed in the context of the requirements of modern climate science, by building the physical science appreciation of the instrumental record and looking forward to new and emerging sensor and recording technologies.
Chemoinformatics strategies to improve drug discovery results With contributions from leading researchers in academia and the pharmaceutical industry as well as experts from the software industry, this book explains how chemoinformatics enhances drug discovery and pharmaceutical research efforts, describing what works and what doesn't. Strong emphasis is put on tested and proven practical applications, with plenty of case studies detailing the development and implementation of chemoinformatics methods to support successful drug discovery efforts. Many of these case studies depict groundbreaking collaborations between academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Chemoinformatics for Drug Discovery is logically organized, offering readers a solid base in methods and models and advancing to drug discovery applications and the design of chemoinformatics infrastructures. The book features 15 chapters, including: What are our models really telling us? A practical tutorial on avoiding common mistakes when building predictive models Exploration of structure-activity relationships and transfer of key elements in lead optimization Collaborations between academia and pharma Applications of chemoinformatics in pharmaceutical research—experiences at large international pharmaceutical companies Lessons learned from 30 years of developing successful integrated chemoinformatic systems Throughout the book, the authors present chemoinformatics strategies and methods that have been proven to work in pharmaceutical research, offering insights culled from their own investigations. Each chapter is extensively referenced with citations to original research reports and reviews. Integrating chemistry, computer science, and drug discovery, Chemoinformatics for Drug Discovery encapsulates the field as it stands today and opens the door to further advances.
Large international construction projects often have a range of major contractors, subcontractors and consultants based in different parts of the world and working to different legal theories and understandings. This can lead to confusion in the understanding, interpretation and execution of the construction contract, which can result in significant disruption to the construction project. International Construction Contract Law is written for anyone who needs to understand the legal and managerial aspects of large international construction projects, including consulting engineers, lawyers, clients, developers, contractors and construction managers worldwide. In 18 chapters it provides a thorough overview of civil law /common law interrelationships, delivery methods, standard forms of contract, risk allocation, variations, claims and dispute resolution, all in the context of international construction projects. Highly practical in approach – it introduces legal analysis only when absolutely essential to understanding, the book also contains a range of useful appendices, including a 10-language basic dictionary of terms used in FIDIC forms.
A unique text on the theory and design fundaments of inductors and transformers, updated with more coverage on the optimization of magnetic devices and many new design examples The first edition is popular among a very broad audience of readers in different areas of engineering and science. This book covers the theory and design techniques of the major types of high-frequency power inductors and transformers for a variety of applications, including switching-mode power supplies (SMPS) and resonant dc-to-ac power inverters and dc-to-dc power converters. It describes eddy-current phenomena (such as skin and proximity effects), high-frequency magnetic materials, core saturation, core losses, complex permeability, high-frequency winding resistance, winding power losses, optimization of winding conductors, integrated inductors and transformers, PCB inductors, self-capacitances, self-resonant frequency, core utilization factor area product method, and design techniques and procedures of power inductors and transformers. These components are commonly used in modern power conversion applications. The material in this book has been class-tested over many years in the author’s own courses at Wright State University, which have a high enrolment of about a hundred graduate students per term. The book presents the growing area of magnetic component research in a textbook form, covering the foundations for analysing and designing magnetic devices specifically at high-frequencies. Integrated inductors are described, and the Self-capacitance of inductors and transformers is examined. This new edition adds information on the optimization of magnetic components (Chapter 5). Chapter 2 has been expanded to provide better coverage of core losses and complex permeability, and Chapter 9 has more in-depth coverage of self-capacitances and self-resonant frequency of inductors. There is a more rigorous treatment of many concepts in all chapters. Updated end-of-chapter problems aid the readers’ learning process, with an online solutions manual available for use in the classroom. Provides physics-based descriptions and models of discrete inductors and transformers as well as integrated magnetic devices New coverage on the optimization of magnetic devices, updated information on core losses and complex permeability, and more in-depth coverage of self-capacitances and self-resonant frequency of inductors Many new design examples and end-of-chapter problems for the reader to test their learning Presents the most up-to-date and important references in the field Updated solutions manual, now available through a companion website An up to date resource for Post-graduates and professors working in electrical and computer engineering. Research students in power electronics. Practising design engineers of power electronics circuits and RF (radio-frequency) power amplifiers, senior undergraduates in electrical and computer engineering, and R & D staff.
This unique book presents simple, easy-to-use, but effective short codes as well as virtual tools that can be used by electrical, electronic, communication, and computer engineers in a broad range of electrical engineering problems Electromagnetic modeling is essential to the design and modeling of antenna, radar, satellite, medical imaging, and other applications. In this book, author Levent Sevgi explains techniques for solving real-time complex physical problems using MATLAB-based short scripts and comprehensive virtual tools. Unique in coverage and tutorial approach, Electromagnetic Modeling and Simulation covers fundamental analytical and numerical models that are widely used in teaching, research, and engineering designs—including mode and ray summation approaches with the canonical 2D nonpenetrable parallel plate waveguide as well as FDTD, MoM, and SSPE scripts. The book also establishes an intelligent balance among the essentials of EM MODSIM: The Problem (the physics), The Theory and Models (mathematical background and analytical solutions), and The Simulations (code developing plus validation, verification, and calibration). Classroom tested in graduate-level and short courses, Electromagnetic Modeling and Simulation: Clarifies concepts through numerous worked problems and quizzes provided throughout the book Features valuable MATLAB-based, user-friendly, effective engineering and research virtual design tools Includes sample scenarios and video clips recorded during characteristic simulations that visually impact learning—available on wiley.com Provides readers with their first steps in EM MODSIM as well as tools for medium and high-level code developers and users Electromagnetic Modeling and Simulation thoroughly covers the physics, mathematical background, analytical solutions, and code development of electromagnetic modeling, making it an ideal resource for electrical engineers and researchers.
The community responsible for developing lexicons for Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Readable Dictionaries (MRDs) started their ISO standardization activities in 2003. These activities resulted in the ISO standard – Lexical Markup Framework (LMF). After selecting and defining a common terminology, the LMF team had to identify the common notions shared by all lexicons in order to specify a common skeleton (called the core model) and understand the various requirements coming from different groups of users. The goals of LMF are to provide a common model for the creation and use of lexical resources, to manage the exchange of data between and among these resources, and to enable the merging of a large number of individual electronic resources to form extensive global electronic resources. The various types of individual instantiations of LMF can include monolingual, bilingual or multilingual lexical resources. The same specifications can be used for small and large lexicons, both simple and complex, as well as for both written and spoken lexical representations. The descriptions range from morphology, syntax and computational semantics to computer-assisted translation. The languages covered are not restricted to European languages, but apply to all natural languages. The LMF specification is now a success and numerous lexicon managers currently use LMF in different languages and contexts. This book starts with the historical context of LMF, before providing an overview of the LMF model and the Data Category Registry, which provides a flexible means for applying constants like /grammatical gender/ in a variety of different settings. It then presents concrete applications and experiments on real data, which are important for developers who want to learn about the use of LMF. Contents 1. LMF – Historical Context and Perspectives, Nicoletta Calzolari, Monica Monachini and Claudia Soria. 2. Model Description, Gil Francopoulo and Monte George. 3. LMF and the Data Category Registry: Principles and Application, Menzo Windhouwer and Sue Ellen Wright. 4. Wordnet-LMF: A Standard Representation for Multilingual Wordnets, Piek Vossen, Claudia Soria and Monica Monachini. 5. Prolmf: A Multilingual Dictionary of Proper Names and their Relations, Denis Maurel, Béatrice Bouchou-Markhoff. 6. LMF for Arabic, Aida Khemakhem, Bilel Gargouri, Kais Haddar and Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou. 7. LMF for a Selection of African Languages, Chantal Enguehard and Mathieu Mangeot. 8. LMF and its Implementation in Some Asian Languages, Takenobu Tokunaga, Sophia Y.M. Lee, Virach Sornlertlamvanich, Kiyoaki Shirai, Shu-Kai Hsieh and Chu-Ren Huang. 9. DUELME: Dutch Electronic Lexicon of Multiword Expressions, Jan Odijk. 10. UBY-LMF – Exploring the Boundaries of Language-Independent Lexicon Models, Judith Eckle-Kohler, Iryna Gurevych, Silvana Hartmann, Michael Matuschek and Christian M. Meyer. 11. Conversion of Lexicon-Grammar Tables to LMF: Application to French, Éric Laporte, Elsa Tolone and Matthieu Constant. 12. Collaborative Tools: From Wiktionary to LMF, for Synchronic and Diachronic Language Data, Thierry Declerck, Pirsoka Lendvai and Karlheinz Mörth. 13. LMF Experiments on Format Conversions for Resource Merging: Converters and Problems, Marta Villegas, Muntsa Padró and Núria Bel. 14. LMF as a Foundation for Servicized Lexical Resources, Yoshihiko Hayashi, Monica Monachini, Bora Savas, Claudia Soria and Nicoletta Calzolari. 15. Creating a Serialization of LMF: The Experience of the RELISH Project, Menzo Windhouwer, Justin Petro, Irina Nevskaya, Sebastian Drude, Helen Aristar-Dry and Jost Gippert. 16. Global Atlas: Proper Nouns, From Wikipedia to LMF, Gil Francopoulo, Frédéric Marcoul, David Cau
The Alps, with their outstanding outcrop conditions, represent a superb natural laboratory for many geological processes, and have played a crucial role in the history of geology. This book gives an up-to-date and holistic overview of the key aspects of Alpine geology. After a brief presentation of the plate tectonic framework, the rock suites are discussed, starting with the pre-Triassic crystalline basement, followed by Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary sequences. The lithological description of the rock types is supplemented by a discussion of their paleogeographic and plate tectonic contexts. The book goes on to describe the structure of the Alps (including the Jura Mountains and the Alpine foreland to the north and south) illustrated by numerous cross-sections. The evolution of the Alps as a mountain chain incorporates a discussion of the Alpine metamorphic history and a compilation of orogenic timetables. The final sections cover the evolution of Alpine drainage patterns and the region’s glacial history. Readership: The book is essential reading for students and lecturers on Alpine courses and excursions, and all earth-scientists interested in the geology of the region.
This latest volume in the Horticultural Reviews Series presents the most recent analyses of innovations in horticultural science and technology. Covering both basic and applied research, Volume 41 incorporates a wide variety of horticultural topics including the horticulture of fruits, vegetables, nut crops, and ornamentals. Specialized researchers and the broader community of horticultural scientists and student may benefit from this research tool.