A fully comprehensive introduction to smart grid standards and their applications for developers, consumers and service providers The critical role of standards for smart grid has already been realized by world-wide governments and industrial organizations. There are hundreds of standards for Smart Grid which have been developed in parallel by different organizations. It is therefore necessary to arrange those standards in such a way that it is easier for readers to easily understand and select a particular standard according to their requirements without going into the depth of each standard, which often spans from hundreds to thousands of pages. The book will allow people in the smart grid areas and in the related industries to easily understand the fundamental standards of smart grid, and quickly find the building-block standards they need from hundreds of standards for implementing a smart grid system. The authors highlight the most advanced works and efforts now under way to realize an integrated and interoperable smart grid, such as the “NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards Release 2.0”, the” IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap”, the ISO/IEC’s “Smart Grid Standards for Residential Customers”, the ZigBee/HomePlug’s “Smart Energy Profile Specification 2.0”, IEEE’s P2030 “Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), and End-Use Applications and Loads”, and the latest joint research project results between the world’s two largest economies, US and China. The book enables readers to fully understand the latest achievements and ongoing technical works of smart grid standards, and assist industry utilities, vendors, academia, regulators, and other smart grid stakeholders in future decision making. The book begins with an overview of the smart grid, and introduces the opportunities in both developed and developing countries. It then examines the standards for power grid domain of the smart grid, including standards for blackout prevention and energy management, smart transmission, advanced distribution management and automation, smart substation automation, and condition monitoring. Communication and security standards as a whole are the backbone of smart grid and their standards, including those for wired and wireless communications, are then assessed. Finally the authors consider the standards and on-going work and efforts for interoperability and integration between different standards and networks, including the latest joint research effort between the world’s two largest economies, US and China. A fully comprehensive introduction to smart grid standards and their applications for developers, consumers and service providers Covers all up-to-date standards of smart grid, including the key standards from NIST, IEC, ISO ZigBee, IEEE, HomePlug, SAE, and other international and regional standardization organizations. The Appendix summarizes all of the standards mentioned in the book Presents standards for renewable energy and smart generation, covering wind energy, solar voltaic, fuel cells, pumped storage, distributed generation, and nuclear generation standards. Standards for other alternative sources of energy such as geothermal energy, and bioenergy are briefly introduced Introduces the standards for smart storage and plug-in electric vehicles, including standards for distributed energy resources (DER), electric storage, and E-mobility/plug-in vehicles The book is written in an accessible style, ideal as an introduction to the topic, yet contains sufficient detail and research to appeal to the more advanced and specialist reader.<
With its inclusion of the fundamentals, systems and applications, this reference provides readers with the basics of micro energy conversion along with expert knowledge on system electronics and real-life microdevices. The authors address different aspects of energy harvesting at the micro scale with a focus on miniaturized and microfabricated devices. Along the way they provide an overview of the field by compiling knowledge on the design, materials development, device realization and aspects of system integration, covering emerging technologies, as well as applications in power management, energy storage, medicine and low-power system electronics. In addition, they survey the energy harvesting principles based on chemical, thermal, mechanical, as well as hybrid and nanotechnology approaches. In unparalleled detail this volume presents the complete picture – and a peek into the future – of micro-powered microsystems.
Combining robotics with nanotechnology, this ready reference summarizes the fundamentals and emerging applications in this fascinating research field. This is the first book to introduce tools specifically designed and made for manipulating micro- and nanometer-sized objects, and presents such examples as semiconductor packaging and clinical diagnostics as well as surgery. The first part discusses various topics of on-chip and device-based micro- and nanomanipulation, including the use of acoustic, magnetic, optical or dielectrophoretic fields, while surface-driven and high-speed microfluidic manipulation for biophysical applications are also covered. In the second part of the book, the main focus is on microrobotic tools. Alongside magnetic micromanipulators, bacteria and untethered, chapters also discuss silicon nano- and integrated optical tweezers. The book closes with a number of chapters on nanomanipulation using AFM and nanocoils under optical and electron microscopes. Exciting images from the tiniest robotic systems at the nano-level are used to illustrate the examples throughout the work. A must-have book for readers with a background ranging from engineering to nanotechnology.
The latest volume in the well-established AMN series, this ready reference provides an up-to-date, self-contained summary of recent developments in the technologies and systems for thermoelectricity. Following an initial chapter that introduces the fundamentals and principles of thermoelectricity, subsequent chapters discuss the synthesis and integration of various bulk thermoelectric as well as nanostructured materials. The book then goes on to discuss characterization techniques, including various light and mechanic microscopy techniques, while also summarizing applications for thermoelectric materials, such as micro- and nano-thermoelectric generators, wearable electronics and energy conversion devices. The result is a bridge between industry and scientific researchers seeking to develop thermoelectric generators.
This book presents a new fracturing technique that should be considered as a potential alternative, or a companion technique, to hydraulic fracturing of tight gas reservoirs and low permeability rock masses. As opposed to hydraulic fracturing which generates a few numbers of large cracks, electro-hydraulic fracturing induces diffuse micro-cracking and fragmentation of rocks. Laboratory tests demonstrate that increases of permeability by two orders of magnitude can be reached, without major cracking in tested specimens. This book discusses the principles of this new technique, reports experiments which have been developed is order to prove the concept and finally describes the numerical model from which the potentialities of this technique in representative reservoir conditions can be assessed.
Mechanics of Microsystems Alberto Corigliano, Raffaele Ardito, Claudia Comi, Attilio Frangi, Aldo Ghisi and Stefano Mariani, Politecnico di Milano, Italy A mechanical approach to microsystems, covering fundamental concepts including MEMS design, modelling and reliability Mechanics of Microsystems takes a mechanical approach to microsystems and covers fundamental concepts including MEMS design, modelling and reliability. The book examines the mechanical behaviour of microsystems from a ‘design for reliability’ point of view and includes examples of applications in industry. Mechanics of Microsystems is divided into two main parts. The first part recalls basic knowledge related to the microsystems behaviour and offers an overview on microsystems and fundamental design and modelling tools from a mechanical point of view, together with many practical examples of real microsystems. The second part covers the mechanical characterization of materials at the micro-scale and considers the most important reliability issues (fracture, fatigue, stiction, damping phenomena, etc) which are fundamental to fabricate a real working device. Key features: Provides an overview of MEMS, with special focus on mechanical-based Microsystems and reliability issues. Includes examples of applications in industry. Accompanied by a website hosting supplementary material. The book provides essential reading for researchers and practitioners working with MEMS, as well as graduate students in mechanical, materials and electrical engineering.
In-depth and systemic examination of distribution automation with specific focus on fault location and service restoration • Focuses on the detailed and systemic examination of fault location and service restoration in distribution grid • Arms the readers with a complete picture of what fault location and service restoration is from both theoretical and practical perspectives • Presents the authors’ research on fault location and restoration for distribution systems since 1995 • Introduces the first-hand application experience obtained from over 30 DAS (Distribution Automation System) projects in China • Examines the protection approaches of electrical distribution networks automation and on relevant mechanisms associated to electrical supply restoration after (local) blackouts
This book deals with the management and valuation of energy storage in electric power grids, highlighting the interest of storage systems in grid applications and developing management methodologies based on artificial intelligence tools. The authors highlight the importance of storing electrical energy, in the context of sustainable development, in «smart cities» and «smart transportation», and discuss multiple services that storing electrical energy can bring. Methodological tools are provided to build an energy management system storage following a generic approach. These tools are based on causal formalisms, artificial intelligence and explicit optimization techniques and are presented throughout the book in connection with concrete case studies.
EPD Congress is an annual collection of conference proceedings that addresses extraction and processing metallurgy. The papers in this book are drawn from symposia held at the 2016 Annual Meeting of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. The 2016 edition includes papers from the following symposia: Materials Processing Fundamentals Advanced Characterization Techniques for Quantifying and Modeling Deformation
Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of power electronics into industries and sustainable energy conversion systems. Compares impedance source converter/inverter applications in renewable energy power generation and electric vehicles as well as different industrial applications. Provides an overview of existing challenges, solutions and future trends. Supported by calculation examples, simulation models and results. Highly accessible, this is an invaluable resource for researchers, postgraduate/graduate students studying power electronics and its application in industry and renewable energy conversion as well as practising R&D engineers. Readers will be able to apply the presented material for the future design of the next generation of efficient power electronic converters/inverters.