Самое полное исследование применения различных ограничений в международной торговле в XIX – первой трети ХХ вв. Показано как к середине XIX в. в Западной Европе в результате заключения системы двусторонних договоров, содержавших оговорку о праве наибольшего благоприятствования, сложился режим свободной торговли; проанализированы причины, по которым, начиная с 70-х гг. XIX вв., постепенно вновь восторжествовала протекционистская идеология, вылившаяся в агрессивный протекционизм начала ХХ в., логическим исходом которого стала Первая мировая война.
Globalisation is considered a success story. Following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the political divides between East and West Germany, nothing seemed to stand in the way of peaceful cooperation between people everywhere. Under the precepts of economic liberalism, by removing institutional obstacles to international trade and capital flows, a spontaneous global order would emerge, and the dream of a world populated by free and prosperous global citizens would eventually come true.But in the wake of the worldwide financial crisis that began in 2007–2008, in the world of an ongoing Euro-Crisis, Trump and Brexit, it has become apparent that the great liberal project has failed. Neoclassical liberal economic theory has shown itself to be fundamentally incapable of explaining the dynamics of a market economy and in guiding economic policy in developed as well as in developing countries.Given the continuing dominance of that discredited theory today, the world lacks a viable conceptual framework for global cooperation among nations, and appropriate national economic policies. With this book, the authors show how such a framework can be built on the basis of a modern and empirically sound economic theory.<b>Contents:</b> <ul><li>Globalisation and Digitisation — The Challenges of Our Time</li><li>The Democratic State and the Economy as a Whole</li><li>Neoliberalism as Regression</li><li>Money as a Domain of the State</li><li>Modern Economic Policy and the Role of the State</li></ul><br><b>Readership:</b> Students, Professionals, People interested in macroeconomics and the economy.Globalisation;Macroeconomics;International Economy;Inequality and Consumption;International Relations;Monetary Relations;National Economic and Social Policy;International Trade;Protectionism0<b>Key Features:</b><ul><li>A new approach to economic development</li><li>A new approach to international trade</li><li>A new approach to saving, investment and debt</li></ul>
* Takes a new slant on an increasingly important development issue * There is a noticeable gap in extant literature concerning positive factors beneficial to rural women’s leadership development. This book addresses that gap through a concentrated focus on the presence of such positive factors and the ways in which they contribute to the success of rural women in overcoming barriers to leadership. * The dynamic relationship of External and Internal Factors is highlighted through distillation into five Key Factors cited by rural women as not only supportive of their leadership development, but also as crucial to the development of aspiring rural women leaders.