Is it due to lack of critical agency that precarious persons opt, time and again, for political views that contribute to their marginalization? How should we understand that alleged loss of critical agency and how could it be countered? Influential perspectives in critical theory have answered these questions by highlighting how certain ideological mechanisms, incorporated thoughtlessly by the most vulnerable bodies, function to obscure their interests and the causes of the condition they find themselves in. Through an original interpretation of Jacques Rancière’s thought, but also going beyond it, The Politics of Bodies establishes a different horizon of reflection. Laura Quintana’s main hypothesis is that the lack of critical agency today has more to do with a loss of the desire for transformation, fostered by neoliberal consensual dynamics, than with techniques of deceit and manipulation. In developing her interpretation of Rancière’s thought, Quintana provides an analysis of certain aesthetic-political and socioeconomic conditions of the historical present, anchored mainly in Latin America. Thus, she addresses the corporeal transformations produced by emancipatory practices, the ways in which they affect configurations of power, and the manner in which they can be disseminated in and, in turn, alter the political landscape.
Ontologies of Sex: Philosophy in Sexual Politics considers the ontological presuppositions of feminist theories of sexual difference and brings them into conversation with phenomenological, ontological accounts of erotic experience. Erotic relation is a corporeal, intimate, and affective encounter with the other in which the subjects have the possibility of being revealed to themselves and to each other in who they are. In eroticism, law paradoxes, death, abjection, subjectivity, sovereignty, commitment, engagement, freedom are at stake. By inquiring into various types of analyzes of sexual oppression and different accounts of ethics of Eros, this book invites the reader to deepen their existential reflection on the significance of Eros for human life in general, and for political subjectivity in particular.
Considered by many to be the most innovative British Marxist writer of the twentieth century, Christopher Caudwell was killed in the Spanish Civil War at the age of 29. Although already a published writer of aeronautic texts and crime fiction, he was practically unknown to the public until reviews appeared of Illusion and Reality: A Study of the Sources of Poetry, which was published just after his death. A strikingly original study of poetry’s role, it explained in clear language how the organizing of emotion in society plays a part in social change and development. Caudwell had a powerful interest in how things worked – aeronautics, physics, human psychology, language, and society. In the anti-fascist struggles of the 1930s he saw that capitalism was a system that could not work properly and distorted the thinking of the age. Self-educated from the age of 15, he wrote with a directness that is alien to most cultural theory. Culture as Politics introduces Caudwell’s work through his most accessible and relevant writing. Material will be drawn from Illusion and Reality, Studies in a Dying Culture and his essay, “Heredity and Development.”
Amilcar Cabral, who was the Secretary-General of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and the Cape Verde Islands (PAIGC), was assassinated by Portuguese agents on January 20, 1973. Under his leadership, the PAIGC liberated three-quarters of the countryside of Guinea in less than ten years of revolutionary struggle. Cabral distinguished himself among modern revolutionaries by the long and careful preparation, both theoretical and practical, which he undertook before launching the revolutionary struggle, and, in the course of the preparation, became one of the world's outstanding theoreticians of anti-imperialist struggle. This volume contains some of the principal speeches Cabral delivered in his last years during visits to the United States. The first is his speech to the fourth Commission of the United Nations General Assembly on October 16, 1972, on «Questions of Territories Under Portuguese Administration.» His brilliant speeches on «National Liberation and Culture» (1970) and «Identity and Dignity in the Context of the National Liberation Struggle» (1972) follow.
Metaphysics and the Modern World makes the abiding questions of the nature of the self, world, and God available for the modern reader. Donald Phillip Verene presents these questions in both their systematic and historical dimensions, beginning with Aristotle's claim in his Metaphysics that philosophy begins in wonder. The first three chapters concern the origin of metaphysics as the transformation of the conception of reality in ancient Greek mythology, the ontological argument as the basis of Christian metaphysics, and the Renaissance cosmology of infinite worlds and the coincidence of contraries. The final four chapters present the central issues of the metaphysics of history through the New Science of Vico, the principle of true infinity of Hegel's Logic, the dialectic of spirit and life in Cassirer's Metaphysics of Symbolic Forms, and the conception of actual entities and God in Whitehead's Process and Reality. In these discussions, the reader will find a lively and learned account of a field of philosophy that is often thought difficult to access, but in this work becomes most accessible and a pleasure to read.
Since the 1960s, the virtues have been making a comeback in various fields of study. This book offers an overview of the history of virtues from Plato to Nietzsche, discusses the philosophy and psychology of virtues, and analyzes different applications of virtue in epistemology, positive psychology, ethics, and politics.
Philosophy is the quest for a life that is fully alive. Drawing on the insights of philosophers through the ages, The Way of Philosophy clarifies what it means to live life intensely. It exposes the shallowness of conventional wisdom by asking such questions as
–Can science know everything? –Should we do it if it feels good? –Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? –Is life about creating ourselves? –Is love supposed to be selfless? –Can we ignore death? –If God exists, why is he hiding?
Philosophers invite us to go down deep and live a life in light of truth, goodness, and beauty. If we tread this path, we can discover for ourselves the hidden source of the philosophical life in the unending wellspring of wonder.
From the introduction: «The Science of Right has for its object the principles of all the laws which it is possible to promulgate by external legislation. Where there is such a legislation, it becomes, in actual application to it, a system of positive right and law; and he who is versed in the knowledge of this system is called a jurist or jurisconsult (jurisconsultus). A practical jurisconsult (jurisperitus), or a professional lawyer, is one who is skilled in the knowledge of positive external laws, and who can apply them to cases that may occur in experience. Such practical knowledge of positive right, and law, may be regarded as belonging to jurisprudence (jurisprudentia) in the original sense of the term. But the theoretical knowledge of right and law in principle, as distinguished from positive laws and empirical cases, belongs to the pure science of right (jurisscientia). The science of right thus designates the philosophical and systematic knowledge of the principles of natural right. And it is from this science that the immutable principles of all positive legislation must be derived by practical jurists and lawgivers.»
German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer wrote a strong text to explain his belief system in «The World as Will and Representation.» Rather than viewing the world as a construct within itself, Schopenhauer argued that the world exists beyond the five senses. He believed that rather than seeing an object in its true form, we only see and understand our perception of it. His ideas are classified as post-Kantian philosophy, just one strand of thought amidst other thinkers such as Hegel and Heidegger. However, Schopenhauer is generally thought to follow Kant's original ideas most closely. Still, the philosopher disagrees with Kant's view of ethics, saying that inner experiences, driven by the Will, are the most significant part of the human experience. Born in the late 1700's, Schopenhauer was immersed in philosophy at a young age. By age 25, he published his doctoral dissertation «On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reasoning.» In his most famous works, he primarily focused on the attainment of happiness. He believed that physical and emotional desires can never be satisfied, resulting in a painful human condition. Schopenhauer claimed that all actions are internally motivated by a desire to obtain pleasure, but that lasting happiness would remain unobtainable. «The World as Will and Representation» is widely hailed as Schopenhauer's greatest work, as well as one of the most contemporarily-written philosophical texts of the nineteenth century. This edition splits the work into three volumes of which this is the first.