Untangle the web of fundraising regulations, with the latest updates for 2017 The Law of Fundraising is the definitive reference by the field's most respected authority, and the only book to tackle the increasingly complex maze of federal and state fundraising regulations. Updated to cover the latest changes to fundraising law for 2017, this book includes new coverage of donor-advised funds, international fundraising, and the IRS's charitable spending initiative alongside updates on Form 990, political fundraising, and more. Both state and federal regulations are covered with an emphasis on administrative, tax, and constitutional law, alongside expert discussion on compliance issues, trends, and upcoming legislation. Accessible language aids in conceptual understanding, while extensive tables of cases, IRS rulings and pronouncements, checklists, and sample forms facilitate correct application. The companion website features additional tables, appendices, IRS guidelines, and other useful documents, providing attorneys, accountants, and nonprofit professionals with a rich toolkit for ensuring compliance. With all topics pertaining to finance under increasing federal scrutiny, laws surrounding fundraising are becoming increasingly difficult to parse. Mistakes can impact the nonprofit's bottom line, so keeping up-to-date is crucial; this book provides a comprehensive reference to the latest developments, along with expert forecasting of what is to come. Understand the latest state and federal laws surrounding fundraising activities Learn how the law governs Internet fundraising and other emerging issues Get up to date on the new rules surrounding donor-advised funds and international fundraising Examine prospective laws, regulatory trends, and how new rules impact fundraising professionals Fundraising is critical to the nonprofit's ability to carry out their mission, yet the regulatory tangle at both the state and federal level can be a nightmare to navigate. The Law of Fundraising streamlines compliance with the latest legal developments and invaluable tools for application.
In nature, microorganisms are generally found attached to surfaces as biofilms such as dust, insects, plants, animals and rocks, rather than suspended in solution. Once a biofilm is developed, other microorganisms are free to attach and benefit from this microbial community. The food industry, which has a rich supply of nutrients, solid surfaces, and raw materials constantly entering and moving through the facility, is an ideal environment for biofilm development, which can potentially protect food pathogens from sanitizers and result in the spread of foodborne illness. Biofilms in the Food Environment is designed to provide researchers in academia, federal research labs, and industry with an understanding of the impact, control, and hurdles of biofilms in the food environment. Key to biofilm control is an understanding of its development. The goal of this 2nd edition is to expand and complement the topics presented in the original book. Readers will find: The first comprehensive review of biofilm development by Campylobacter jejuni An up-date on the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to sanitizing agents, which continues to be a major concern to the food industry An account of biofilms associated with various food groups such as dairy, meat, vegetables and fruit is of global concern A description of two novel methods to control biofilms in the food environment: bio-nanoparticle technology and bacteriophage Biofilms are not always a problem: sometimes they even desirable. In the human gut they are essential to our survival and provide access to some key nutrients from the food we consume. The authors provide up-date information on the use of biofilms for the production of value-added products via microbial fermentations. Biofilms cannot be ignored when addressing a foodborne outbreak. All the authors for each chapter are experts in their field of research. The Editors? hope is that this second edition will provide the bases and understanding for much needed future research in the critical area of ?Biofilm in Food Environment?.
Provides unique coverage of wireless sensor system applications in space, underwater, underground, and extreme industrial environments in one volume This book covers the challenging aspects of wireless sensor systems and the problems and conditions encountered when applying them in outer space, under the water, below the ground, and in extreme industrial environments. It explores the unique aspects of designs and solutions that address those problems and challenges, and illuminates the connections, similarities, and differences between the challenges and solutions in those various environments. The creation of Wireless Sensor Systems for Extreme Environments is a response to the spread of wireless sensor technology into fields of health, safety, manufacturing, space, environmental, smart cities, advanced robotics, surveillance, and agriculture. It is the first of its kind to present, in a single reference, the unique aspects of wireless sensor system design, development, and deployment in such extreme environments—and to explore the similarities and possible synergies between them. The application of wireless sensor systems in these varied environments has been lagging dramatically behind their application in more conventional environments, making this an especially relevant book for investigators and practitioners in all of these areas. Wireless Sensor Systems for Extreme Environments is presented in five parts that cover: Wireless Sensor Systems for Extreme Environments—Generic Solutions Space WSS Solutions and Applications Underwater and Submerged WSS Solutions Underground and Confined Environments WSS Solutions Industrial and Other WSS Solutions This book is a welcome guide for researchers, post-graduate students, engineers and scientists who design and build operational and environmental control systems, emergency response systems, and situational awareness systems for unconventional environments.
Einstein proposed his theory of special relativity in 1905. For a long time it was believed that this theory has no significant impact on chemistry. This view changed in the 1970s when it was realized that (nonrelativistic) Schrodinger quantum mechanics yields results on molecular properties that depart significantly from experimental results. Especially when heavy elements are involved, these quantitative deviations can be so large that qualitative chemical reasoning and understanding is affected. For this to grasp the appropriate many-electron theory has rapidly evolved. Nowadays relativistic approaches are routinely implemented and applied in standard quantum chemical software packages. As it is essential for chemists and physicists to understand relativistic effects in molecules, the first edition of «Relativistic Quantum Chemistry – The fundamental Theory of Molecular Science» had set out to provide a concise, comprehensive, and complete presentation of this theory. This second edition expands on some of the latest developments in this fascinating field. The text retains its clear and consistent style, allowing for a readily accessible overview of the complex topic. It is also self-contained, building on the fundamental equations and providing the mathematical background necessary. While some parts of the text have been restructured for the sake of clarity a significant amount of new content has also been added. This includes, for example, an in-depth discussion of the Brown-Ravenhall disease, of spin in current-density functional theory, and of exact two-component methods and its local variants. A strength of the first edition of this textbook was its list of almost 1000 references to the original research literature, which has made it a valuable reference also for experts in the field. In the second edition, more than 100 additional key references have been added – most of them considering the recent developments in the field. Thus, the book is a must-have for everyone entering the field, as well as for experienced researchers searching for a consistent review.
A one-of-a-kind guide to identifying and dealing with modern statistical developments in causality Written by a group of well-known experts, Statistics and Causality: Methods for Applied Empirical Research focuses on the most up-to-date developments in statistical methods in respect to causality. Illustrating the properties of statistical methods to theories of causality, the book features a summary of the latest developments in methods for statistical analysis of causality hypotheses. The book is divided into five accessible and independent parts. The first part introduces the foundations of causal structures and discusses issues associated with standard mechanistic and difference-making theories of causality. The second part features novel generalizations of methods designed to make statements concerning the direction of effects. The third part illustrates advances in Granger-causality testing and related issues. The fourth part focuses on counterfactual approaches and propensity score analysis. Finally, the fifth part presents designs for causal inference with an overview of the research designs commonly used in epidemiology. Statistics and Causality: Methods for Applied Empirical Research also includes: New statistical methodologies and approaches to causal analysis in the context of the continuing development of philosophical theories End-of-chapter bibliographies that provide references for further discussions and additional research topics Discussions on the use and applicability of software when appropriate Statistics and Causality: Methods for Applied Empirical Research is an ideal reference for practicing statisticians, applied mathematicians, psychologists, sociologists, logicians, medical professionals, epidemiologists, and educators who want to learn more about new methodologies in causal analysis. The book is also an excellent textbook for graduate-level courses in causality and qualitative logic.
Presents an introduction to Bayesian statistics, presents an emphasis on Bayesian methods (prior and posterior), Bayes estimation, prediction, MCMC,Bayesian regression, and Bayesian analysis of statistical modelsof dependence, and features a focus on copulas for risk management Introduction to Bayesian Estimation and Copula Models of Dependence emphasizes the applications of Bayesian analysis to copula modeling and equips readers with the tools needed to implement the procedures of Bayesian estimation in copula models of dependence. This book is structured in two parts: the first four chapters serve as a general introduction to Bayesian statistics with a clear emphasis on parametric estimation and the following four chapters stress statistical models of dependence with a focus of copulas. A review of the main concepts is discussed along with the basics of Bayesian statistics including prior information and experimental data, prior and posterior distributions, with an emphasis on Bayesian parametric estimation. The basic mathematical background of both Markov chains and Monte Carlo integration and simulation is also provided. The authors discuss statistical models of dependence with a focus on copulas and present a brief survey of pre-copula dependence models. The main definitions and notations of copula models are summarized followed by discussions of real-world cases that address particular risk management problems. In addition, this book includes: • Practical examples of copulas in use including within the Basel Accord II documents that regulate the world banking system as well as examples of Bayesian methods within current FDA recommendations • Step-by-step procedures of multivariate data analysis and copula modeling, allowing readers to gain insight for their own applied research and studies • Separate reference lists within each chapter and end-of-the-chapter exercises within Chapters 2 through 8 • A companion website containing appendices: data files and demo files in Microsoft® Office Excel®, basic code in R, and selected exercise solutions Introduction to Bayesian Estimation and Copula Models of Dependence is a reference and resource for statisticians who need to learn formal Bayesian analysis as well as professionals within analytical and risk management departments of banks and insurance companies who are involved in quantitative analysis and forecasting. This book can also be used as a textbook for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses in Bayesian statistics and analysis. ARKADY SHEMYAKIN, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematics and Director of the Statistics Program at the University of St. Thomas. A member of the American Statistical Association and the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, Dr. Shemyakin's research interests include informationtheory, Bayesian methods of parametric estimation, and copula models in actuarial mathematics, finance, and engineering. ALEXANDER KNIAZEV, PhD, is Associate Professor and Head of the Department of Mathematics at Astrakhan State University in Russia. Dr. Kniazev's research interests include representation theory of Lie algebras and finite groups, mathematical statistics, econometrics, and financial mathematics.
Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: Properties of non-parabolic energy bands Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrödinger equations Critical thickness of strained materials Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities Density matrix transport modelling Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is presented in a lucid style with easy to follow steps, illustrative examples and questions and computational problems in each chapter to help the reader build solid foundations of understanding to a level where they can initiate their own theoretical investigations. Suitable for postgraduate students of semiconductor and condensed matter physics, the book is essential to all those researching in academic and industrial laboratories worldwide. Instructors can contact the authors directly ([email protected] / [email protected]) for Solutions to the problems.
This book explains all of the stages involved in developing medical devices; from concept to medical approval including system engineering, bioinstrumentation design, signal processing, electronics, software and ICT with Cloud and e-Health development. Medical Instrument Design and Development offers a comprehensive theoretical background with extensive use of diagrams, graphics and tables (around 400 throughout the book). The book explains how the theory is translated into industrial medical products using a market-sold Electrocardiograph disclosed in its design by the Gamma Cardio Soft manufacturer. The sequence of the chapters reflects the product development lifecycle. Each chapter is focused on a specific University course and is divided into two sections: theory and implementation. The theory sections explain the main concepts and principles which remain valid across technological evolutions of medical instrumentation. The Implementation sections show how the theory is translated into a medical product. The Electrocardiograph (ECG or EKG) is used as an example as it is a suitable device to explore to fully understand medical instrumentation since it is sufficiently simple but encompasses all the main areas involved in developing medical electronic equipment. Key Features: Introduces a system-level approach to product design Covers topics such as bioinstrumentation, signal processing, information theory, electronics, software, firmware, telemedicine, e-Health and medical device certification Explains how to use theory to implement a market product (using ECG as an example) Examines the design and applications of main medical instruments Details the additional know-how required for product implementation: business context, system design, project management, intellectual property rights, product life cycle, etc. Includes an accompanying website with the design of the certified ECG product (www.gammacardiosoft.it/book) Discloses the details of a marketed ECG Product (from Gamma Cardio Soft) compliant with the ANSI standard AAMI EC 11 under open licenses (GNU GPL, Creative Common) This book is written for biomedical engineering courses (upper-level undergraduate and graduate students) and for engineers interested in medical instrumentation/device design with a comprehensive and interdisciplinary system perspective.
Sustainable Operations and Supply Chain Management addresses the most relevant topics of operations and supply chain management from the perspective of sustainability. The main focus is to provide a step by step guide for managerial decisions made along the product life-cycle, following a path made up of the following steps: product design, sourcing, manufacturing, packaging and physical distribution, reverses logistics and recovery.
At last, the first systematic guide to the growing jungle of citation indices and other bibliometric indicators. Written with the aim of providing a complete and unbiased overview of all available statistical measures for scientific productivity, the core of this reference is an alphabetical dictionary of indices and other algorithms used to evaluate the importance and impact of researchers and their institutions. In 150 major articles, the authors describe all indices in strictly mathematical terms without passing judgement on their relative merit. From widely used measures, such as the journal impact factor or the h-index, to highly specialized indices, all indicators currently in use in the sciences and humanities are described, and their application explained. The introductory section and the appendix contain a wealth of valuable supporting information on data sources, tools and techniques for bibliometric and scientometric analysis – for individual researchers as well as their funders and publishers.