The increasing demand for healthy foods has resulted in the food industry developing functional foods with health-promoting and/or disease preventing properties. However, many of these products bring new challenges. While drugs are taken for their efficacy, functional foods need to have tastes that are acceptable to consumers. Bitterness associated with the functional foods is one of the major challenges encountered by food industry today and will remain so in years to come. This important book offers a thorough understanding of bitterness, the food ingredients that cause it and its accurate measurement. The authors provide a thorough review of bitterness that includes an understanding of the genetics of bitterness perception and the molecular basis for individual differences in bitterness perception. This is followed by a detailed review of the chemical structure of bitter compounds in foods where bitterness may be considered to be a positive or negative attribute. To better understand bitterness in foods, separation and analytical techniques used to identify and characterize bitter compounds are also covered. Food processing can itself generate compounds that are bitter, such as the Maillard reaction and lipid oxidation related products. Since bitterness is considered a negative attribute in many foods, the methods being used to remove and/mask it are also thoroughly discussed.
Endlich keine schlaflosen Nachte mehr fur alle Studenten der Bio- und Umweltwissenschaften, die genau wissen, dass ihr Studium ohne fundierte Statistikkenntnisse undenkbar ist. Als hilfreiches Mittel gegen das ?Angstfach? Statistik ist der internationale Bestseller ?Statistics for Terrified Biologists? endlich ins Deutsche ubersetzt worden. Der Autoren Helmut van Emden gelingt es, eine leicht verdauliche und doch fundierte Grundlage der Statistik fur die Biowissenschaften zu kreieren. Michael Knorrenschild, ein Mathematiker mit viel Lehrerfahrung ubersetzte und adaptierte das Buch fur die deutsche Studienrealitat.
The Early Earth: Accretion and Differentiation provides a multidisciplinary overview of the state of the art in understanding the formation and primordial evolution of the Earth. The fundamental structure of the Earth as we know it today was inherited from the initial conditions 4.56 billion years ago as a consequence of planetesimal accretion, large impacts among planetary objects, and planetary-scale differentiation. The evolution of the Earth from a molten ball of metal and magma to the tectonically active, dynamic, habitable planet that we know today is unique among the terrestrial planets, and understanding the earliest processes that led to Earth’s current state is the essence of this volume. Important results have emerged from a wide range of disciplines including cosmochemistry, geochemistry, experimental petrology, experimental and theoretical mineral physics and geodynamics. The topics in this volume include: Condensation of primitive objects in the solar nebula, planetary building blocks Early and late accretion and planetary dynamic modeling Primordial differentiation, core formation, Magma Ocean evolution and crystallization This volume will be a valuable resource for graduate students, academics, and researchers in the fields of geophysics, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, and planetary science.
Exposure to chronic stress has cumulative adverse effects on physical and mental health, considered to be the consequence of chronic exposure to high levels of stress hormones. Consequently, there is extensive research in progress to investigate and better understand how the brain organises neuroendocrine stress responses and how interventions may be able to moderate these responses to improve mental and physical health. Neuroendocrinology of Stress highlights current knowledge of the organisation and physiology of these stress response systems, how the impact of dysregulation of these systems is being investigated, and considers the ways in which contributions to both psychiatric and physical diseases resulting from chronic stress effects can be critically addressed in basic research Written by a team of internationally renowned researchers, each chapter presents a succinct summary of the very latest developments in the field Both print and enhanced e-book versions are available Illustrated in full colour throughout This is the second volume in a new Series «Masterclass in Neuroendocrinology», a co- publication between Wiley and the INF (International Neuroendocrine Federation) that aims to illustrate highest standards and encourage the use of the latest technologies in basic and clinical research and hopes to provide inspiration for further exploration into the exciting field of neuroendocrinology. Series Editors: John A. Russell, University of Edinburgh, UK and William E. Armstrong, The University of Tennessee, USA
Using an innovative framework, this reader examines the most important and influential writings on modern class relations. Uses an interdisciplinary approach that combines scholarship from political economy, social history, and cultural studies Brings together more than 50 selections rich in theory and empirical detail that span the working, middle, and capitalist classes Analyzes class within the larger context of labor, particularly as it relates to conflicts over and about work Provides insight into the current crisis in the global capitalist system, including the Occupy Wall Street Movement, the explosion of Arab Spring, and the emergence of class conflict in China
Throughout its many editions, The Architect in Practice has remained a leading textbook used in the education of architects. While the content of the book has developed, the message and philosophy has remained constant: to provide students of architecture and young practitioners with a readable guide to the profession, outlining an architect's duties to their client and contractor, the key aspects of running a building contract, and the essentials of management, finance and drawing office procedure. The eleventh edition follows in that tradition. The text has been brought up to date to ensure it follows the new RIBA Plan of Work 2013 as the guide to the architect’s workflow. In addition, a number of changes to standard forms of contract were made with the publication of the JCT 2011 suite of contracts, and the RIBA Standard Form for the Appointment of an Architect 2010 (2012 Revision). These new forms are fully covered. In addition, the opportunity has been taken to reorganise the layout so that the content flows in a way that is more consistent with current architectural practice, and to deal with the increasing use of BIM. The eleventh edition of The Architect in Practice continues to provide the guidance and advice all students and practising architects need in the course of their studies and in their profession.
In this book, Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is approached from a strictly practical and application-oriented point of view. Based on the characteristics and constraints of modern fiber-optic components, transport systems and fibers, the text provides relevant rules of thumb and practical hints for technology selection, WDM system and link dimensioning, and also for network-related aspects such as wavelength assignment and resilience mechanisms. Actual 10/40 Gb/s WDM systems are considered, and a preview of the upcoming 100 Gb/s systems and technologies for even higher bit rates is given as well. Key features: Considers WDM from ULH backbone (big picture view) down to PON access (micro view). Includes all major telecom and datacom applications. Provides the relevant background for state-of-the-art and next-gen systems. Offers practical guidelines for system / link engineering.
A multi-disciplinary approach to transportation planning fundamentals The Transportation Planning Handbook is a comprehensive, practice-oriented reference that presents the fundamental concepts of transportation planning alongside proven techniques. This new fourth edition is more strongly focused on serving the needs of all users, the role of safety in the planning process, and transportation planning in the context of societal concerns, including the development of more sustainable transportation solutions. The content structure has been redesigned with a new format that promotes a more functionally driven multimodal approach to planning, design, and implementation, including guidance toward the latest tools and technology. The material has been updated to reflect the latest changes to major transportation resources such as the HCM, MUTCD, HSM, and more, including the most current ADA accessibility regulations. Transportation planning has historically followed the rational planning model of defining objectives, identifying problems, generating and evaluating alternatives, and developing plans. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a more multi-disciplinary approach, especially in light of the rising importance of sustainability and environmental concerns. This book presents the fundamentals of transportation planning in a multidisciplinary context, giving readers a practical reference for day-to-day answers. Serve the needs of all users Incorporate safety into the planning process Examine the latest transportation planning software packages Get up to date on the latest standards, recommendations, and codes Developed by The Institute of Transportation Engineers, this book is the culmination of over seventy years of transportation planning solutions, fully updated to reflect the needs of a changing society. For a comprehensive guide with practical answers, The Transportation Planning Handbook is an essential reference.
Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering. Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.
Published with the New York Academy of Sciences A timely, broad-ranging exploration of the neurobiological basis and molecular mechanisms of migraines Migraines impact the lives of a significant portion of the world's population, afflicting sufferers with severe pain, nausea, and often visual impairment. The WHO views migraines as an important public health issue, and ranks them in its top twenty most disabling illnesses. Neurobiological Basis of Migraine reviews the latest advances made in our understanding of the primary basic mechanisms of migraine headache and provides valuable insights into how these findings are being translated into novel treatment and prevention strategies around the world. Written for researchers and clinicians alike, the book features edited contributions from distinguished experts in the field, taking a focused, yet wide-ranging approach to the subject. It begins by exploring the pathways and networks mediating migraine headaches, their underlying physiological mechanisms, characteristics of visceral pain, and the concept of dural neurogenic inflammation. From there the authors delve into the mechanisms sustaining the head pain and photophobia associated with migraines, and they review the pharmacology of newly discovered migraine treatments. These basic chapters are followed by clinical and genetic studies linking to key issues, including cortical spreading depression, ion channels, transporters, and epilepsy. Reviews of the latest advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of migraine Translates important research findings from around the globe into novel treatments strategies currently being investigated Provides researchers and clinicians with a deep understanding of the primary mechanisms of migraine from migraine modeling to clinical applications Includes contributions by many of the most respected researchers in the field, world-wide Discusses exciting recent developments in migraine mutations and their role in CSD, as well as the role of CSD in aura and trigeminal activation Timely, comprehensive, and authoritative, Neurobiological Basis of Migraine is an indispensable working resource for clinicians and migraine, headache, and pain researchers, including neurobiologists, neuropharmacologists, neurologists, and vascular neurobiologists, as well as graduate students in those fields who are involved in researching migraine headaches.