Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 13 Plastids are essential plant organelles, vital for life on earth. They are important not just as photosynthetic organelles (chloroplasts) but also as sites involved in many fundamental intermediary metabolic pathways. Over the last decade, plastid research has seen tremendous advances and an exciting new picture is emerging of how plastids develop and function inside plant cells. The recent and rapid progress in the field has been due largely to reverse genetic approaches and forward genetic screening programs, which have resulted in the dissection of numerous chloroplast protein-function relationships. This book provides an overview of the current state of the art. It is directed at researchers and professionals in plant physiology, cell biology, genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry.
Handling of powders and bulk solids is a critical industrial technology across a broad spectrum of industries, from minerals processing to bulk and fine chemicals, and the food and pharmaceutical industries, yet is rarely found in the curricula of engineering or chemistry departments. With contributions from leading authors in their respective fields, Characterisation of Bulk Solids provides the reader with a sound understanding of the techniques, importance and application of particulate materials characterisation. It covers the fundamental characteristics of individual particles and bulk particulate materials, and includes discussion of a wide range of measurement techniques, and the use of material characteristics in design and industrial practice. The reader will then be in a better position to diagnose solids handling and processing problems in industry, and to deal with experts and equipment suppliers from an informed standpoint. Written for post-graduate engineers, chemical scientists and technologists at all stages of their industrial career, the book will also serve as an ideal primer in any of the specialist areas to inform further study.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) continues to impact semiconductor components and systems as technologies scale from micro- to nano-electronics. This book studies electrical overstress, ESD, and latchup from a whole-chip ESD design synthesis approach. It provides a clear insight into the integration of ESD protection networks from a generalist perspective, followed by examples in specific technologies, circuits, and chips. Uniquely both the semiconductor chip integration issues and floorplanning of ESD networks are covered from a ‘top-down' design approach. Look inside for extensive coverage on: integration of cores, power bussing, and signal pins in DRAM, SRAM, CMOS image processing chips, microprocessors, analog products, RF components and how the integration influences ESD design and integration architecturing of mixed voltage, mixed signal, to RF design for ESD analysis floorplanning for peripheral and core I/O designs, and the implications on ESD and latchup guard ring integration for both a ‘bottom-up' and ‘top-down' methodology addressing I/O guard rings, ESD guard rings, I/O to I/O, and I/O to core classification of ESD power clamps and ESD signal pin circuitry, and how to make the correct choice for a given semiconductor chip examples of ESD design for the state-of-the-art technologies discussed, including CMOS, BiCMOS, silicon on insulator (SOI), bipolar technology, high voltage CMOS (HVCMOS), RF CMOS, and smart power practical methods for the understanding of ESD circuit power distribution, ground rule development, internal bus distribution, current path analysis, quality metrics ESD: Design and Synthesis is a continuation of the author's series of books on ESD protection. It is an essential reference for: ESD, circuit, and semiconductor engineers; design synthesis team leaders; layout design, characterisation, floorplanning, test and reliability engineers; technicians; and groundrule and test site developers in the manufacturing and design of semiconductor chips. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students in electrical engineering, semiconductor sciences, and manufacturing sciences, and on courses involving the design of ESD devices, chips and systems. This book offers a useful insight into the issues that confront modern technology as we enter the nano-electronic era.
If you want to get up to speed with Photoshop Elements 9, this clear, concise guide is the ideal companion for fast and efficient learning. Simply Photoshop Elements 9 contains examples of all the newest features of Photoshop Elements, explaining everything you need to know in plain, jargon-free English with full-colour screen shots and numbered, step-by-step instructions. Updates from the previous version include better organizational and navigation tools for making it easy to find and categorize images, an enhanced tool for converting colour images into B&W, and Flash-based Web gallery templates to display images. The simple, yet elegant design features a multitude of images as well as tips & tricks to make this a perfect reference for all ages. The accompanying website provides all the images used in the book so that you can practice -just follow all instructions on your screen. Find out how to: import photos from digital cameras and scanners retouch and repair damaged photos compose great group shots enhance digital images change print size, canvas size, and resolution edit images for posting on the Web create a Web photo gallery incorporate graphics into desktop publishing programs. Packed with advice and illustrations, this visual tutorial is excellent value for money. Learn something new today – read it, try it and become your own expert with Simply Photoshop Elements 9!
Step-by-step instructions for seniors to get up and running on a home PC Answering the call for an up-to-date, straightforward computer guide targeted specifically for seniors, this helpful book includes easy-to-follow tutorials that escort you through the basics and shows you how to get the most out of your PC. Boasting an elegant, full-color interior with a clean, sophisticated look and feel, the layout makes it easy for you to find the information you need quickly. Author Linda Clark has earned her highly respected reputation through years of teaching computers at both the beginning and intermediate levels. She uses this experience in the field to deliver you a comprehensive resource that shares everything you need to know about working with a computer. Guides you through working with computers so you can reach a level where you feel comfortable and confident Shows you how to find your way around Windows 7 and Microsoft Office 2010 Teaches you how to e-mail, get online, use Internet banking, book holidays, shop online, and more Walks you through sharing photos and watching movies Features numerous examples and illustrations SIMPLY Computing for Seniors puts you on your way to becoming a savvy computer user today!
Water based heating systems are efficient, flexible, versatile and offer many advantages over other heating systems. These advantages (fast response, good controllability, efficient zonal heating and largely silent operation) all require that initial design, installation, commissioning and maintenance be carried out to a high standard by competent engineers. Heating Services in Buildings provides the reader with a detailed and thorough understanding of the principles and elements of heating buildings using modern water based heating systems. A key theme of the book is that there is little difference, in the approach to the design and engineering, between domestic and commercial installations. The author’s detailed but highly practical approach to the subject ensures there is sufficient information for students from both a craft background and those with more academic backgrounds to understand the material. This approach is complemented by straightforward, easy-to-use diagrams. Heating Services in Buildings supports a range of educational courses, including degree level building services engineering; NVQ Level 4 Higher Professional Diploma in Building Services Engineering; City & Guilds supplementary heating course and the Heating Design and Installation Course accredited by the European Registration Scheme (ERS).
Most of the intriguing social phenomena of our time, such as international terrorism, social inequality, and urban ethnic segregation, are consequences of complex forms of agent interaction that are difficult to observe methodically and experimentally. This book looks at a new research stream that makes use of advanced computer simulation modelling techniques to spotlight agent interaction that allows us to explain the emergence of social patterns. It presents a method to pursue analytical sociology investigations that look at relevant social mechanisms in various empirical situations, such as markets, urban cities, and organisations. This book: Provides a comprehensive introduction to epistemological, theoretical and methodological features of agent-based modelling in sociology through various discussions and examples. Presents the pros and cons of using agent-based models in sociology. Explores agent-based models in combining quantitative and qualitative aspects, and micro- and macro levels of analysis. Looks at how to pose an agent-based research question, identifying the model building blocks, and how to validate simulation results. Features examples of agent-based models that look at crucial sociology issues. Supported by an accompanying website featuring data sets and code for the models included in the book. Agent-Based Computational Sociology is written in a common sociological language and features examples of models that look at all the traditional explanatory challenges of sociology. Researchers and graduate students involved in the field of agent-based modelling and computer simulation in areas such as social sciences, cognitive sciences and computer sciences will benefit from this book.
A dispute board is a panel of impartial members, appointed at the outset of the construction contract, whose purpose is to monitor progress, resolve disputes as they arise and provide a forum for discussing difficult matters. This book provides an in depth analysis of dispute board law and detailed, practical explanations of how dispute boards work in construction contracts for those actively involved. as well as for those who need to learn the process. Important features of the book include: Explanation of how a dispute board works: Insider knowledge of board operations: Key documents to run a dispute board: Detailed discussion of dispute board law (covering key jurisdictions worldwide): Forms of practice and procedure, and sample documents Reviews of the previous edition «Chern's book provides an extremely practical guide, covering not only an introduction to the process but also providing check lists and sample documentation.... This book will be welcome by practitioners in the area and newcomers to the dispute board process.» —The International Journal of Arbitration, Mediation and Dispute Management, November 2009 «This book will provide a very useful, perhaps essential, guide to parties commissioning large capital construction projects, those advising them and those bidding to carry out such works, and importantly, the project funders.» —The Expert & Dispute Resolver «This is a must-have book for grown up contractors» —Tony Bingham, Building «His timely work …concentrating on what may prove to be the primary means of dispute resolution for major international construction projects is to be welcomed.» —HHJ Humphrey Lloyd, QC, The International Construction Law Review «This excellent book on Dispute Boards is a must for every construction lawyer, engineer, architect and contractor who is either involved in Dispute Boards or wants to be» —Herbert Wilson, The Journal of the Dispute Board Federation
Foundations of Risk Analysis presents the issues core to risk analysis – understanding what risk means, expressing risk, building risk models, addressing uncertainty, and applying probability models to real problems. The author provides the readers with the knowledge and basic thinking they require to successfully manage risk and uncertainty to support decision making. This updated edition reflects recent developments on risk and uncertainty concepts, representations and treatment. New material in Foundations of Risk Analysis includes: An up to date presentation of how to understand, define and describe risk based on research carried out in recent years. A new definition of the concept of vulnerability consistent with the understanding of risk. Reflections on the need for seeing beyond probabilities to measure/describe uncertainties. A presentation and discussion of a method for assessing the importance of assumptions (uncertainty factors) in the background knowledge that the subjective probabilities are based on A brief introduction to approaches that produce interval (imprecise) probabilities instead of exact probabilities. In addition the new version provides a number of other improvements, for example, concerning the use of cost-benefit analyses and the As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP) principle. Foundations of Risk Analysis provides a framework for understanding, conducting and using risk analysis suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduates, analysts and researchers from statistics, engineering, finance, medicine and the physical sciences, as well as for managers facing decision making problems involving risk and uncertainty.
This comprehensive text on antenna theory explains the origin of radiation and discusses antenna parameters in-depth This book offers an in-depth coverage of fundamental antenna theory, and shows how to apply this in practice. The author discusses electromagnetic radiation and antenna characteristics such as impedance, radiation pattern, polarization, gain and efficiency. In addition, the book provides readers with the necessary tools for analyzing complex antennas and for designing new ones. Furthermore, a refresher chapter on vector algebra, including gradient, divergence and curl operation is included. Throughout the book ample examples of employing the derived theory are given and all chapters are concluded with problems, giving the reader the opportunity to test his/her acquired knowledge. Key Features: Covers the mathematical and physical background that is needed to understand electromagnetic radiation and antennas Discusses the origin of radiation and provides an in-depth explanation of antenna parameters Explores all the necessary steps in antenna analysis allowing the reader to understand and analyze new antenna structures Contains a chapter on vector algebra, which is often a stumbling block for learners in this field Includes examples and a list of problems at the end of each chapter Accompanied by a website containing solutions to the problems (for instructors) and CST modeling files (www.wiley.com/go/visser_antennas This book will serve as an invaluable reference for advanced (last year Bsc, Msc) students in antenna and RF engineering, wireless communications, electrical engineering, radio engineers and other professionals needing a reference on antenna theory. It will also be of interest to advanced/senior radio engineers, designers and developers.