Originally published in 1896, this classic of ethnography was assembled by a skilled illustrator who first encountered Maori tattoo art during his military service in New Zealand. Maori tattooing (moko) consists of a complex design of marks, made in ink and incised into the skin, that communicate the bearer's genealogy, tribal affiliation, and spirituality. This well-illustrated volume summarizes all previous accounts of moko and encompasses many of Robley's own observations. He relates how moko first became known to Europeans and discusses the distinctions between men and women's moko, patterns and designs, moko in legend and song, and the practice of mokomokai: the preservation of the heads of Maori ancestors. Features 180 black-and-white illustrations.
Written by an eminent Masonic historian, this authoritative survey is considered one of the most well-rounded accounts of Masonry in all its stages. First published in a series of volumes from 1882 to 1887, it chronicles «the Craft's» development and movement throughout Europe and to the Far East, Africa, and the Americas. A monumental work culled from many years of research, it spans the vast range of Masonic history from ancient to modern times, including Medieval Operative Masonry, English Laws of the Middle Ages, the Story of the Guild, Legend of the Craft, Early Scottish Craft, the Great Division in English Masonry, Operatives and Guilds throughout the World, and the Grand Lodge of England. Studied for over a century by members of the order and neophytes alike, The Concise History of Freemasonry was revised and updated at the turn of the twentieth century, and remains an important testament to Freemason history. No serious inquirer can get a more powerful feel of the levels of Freemasonry, or be freshly inspired by the order, without first reading this epic work. This edition includes 16 illustrations from the original publication.
The fraternal society of the Masonic Order, steeped in mystery for over 600 years, is brought to light in a fascinating volume that serves as a guide for neophytes as well as a reference for the initiated. Duncan's Ritual of Freemasonry reveals the spiritual paths taken by inductees as they move through each initiated degree of enlightmentment: Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master, and the Royal Arch. The Freemasons' rituals, arcane symbols and mystical doctrines are also probed, and accurate explanations of gestures, tools and terms are accompanied by more than 100 illustrations and original engravings. The work is a fascinating exploration of the theories and practices of the world's most enduring secret society.
The first major study of population size and its tremendous importance to the character and quality of society, this polemic examines the tendency of human numbers to outstrip their resources. Pivotal in establishing the field of demography, it remains crucial to understanding modern problems with food production and distribution.Anglican parson Thomas Robert Malthus wrote his famous essay in 1798 in response to speculations on social perfectibility aroused by the French Revolution. Because human powers of procreation so greatly exceed the production of food, Malthus explained, population will always exceed available resources, and many will inevitably live at the ragged edge of subsistence. His simple yet powerful argument — demonstrating that scarcity and inequality arise even in a society purged of all unjust laws and institutions — was highly controversial in its day. Many of Malthus' contemporaries despised him for dashing their hopes of social progress, and the grim logic of his «population principle» led Thomas Carlyle to dub economics «the dismal science.» Today, Malthus' name is practically synonymous with active concern about demographic and ecological prospects, and his classic remains ever relevant to issues of social policy, theology, evolution, and the environment.
In Power Interrupted, Sylvanna M. Falc�n redirects the conversation about UN-based feminist activism toward UN forums on racism. Her analysis of UN antiracism spaces, in particular the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance in Durban, South Africa, considers how a race and gender intersectionality approach broadened opportunities for feminist organizing at the global level. The Durban conference gave feminist activists a pivotal opportunity to expand the debate about the ongoing challenges of global racism, which had largely privileged men�s experiences with racial injustice. When including the activist engagements and experiential knowledge of these antiracist feminist communities, the political significance of human rights becomes evident. Using a combination of interviews, participant observation, and extensive archival data, Sylvanna M. Falc�n situates contemporary antiracist feminist organizing from the Americas�specifically the activism of feminists of color from the United States and Canada, and feminists from Mexico and Peru�alongside a critical historical reading of the UN and its agenda against racism.�
After the disappointing events of the 1960s, including the loss of Algeria, the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, and the American war in the former French colony of Indo-China, people in France began to look seriously to Freudianism in the transformed version of Jacques Lacan, for a new way of understanding human relations and the relations between human beings and society. The movement in France is not specifically psychoanalytic but developed against such a background. Psychoanalytic thought acquired the kind of centrality in French intellectual life once associated with existentialism and Marxism and later with structuralism–a centrality it probably never possessed in the United States, even at the peak of its popularity. The movement was a reassessment and rethinking of Freud�s thought and influence, and it iwa a movement that was almost unknown to the American public.
Dagur Kari�s Noi the Albino (Noi albinoi, 2003) succeeded on the international festival circuit as a film that was both distinctively Icelandic and appealingly universal. Noi the Albino taps into perennial themes of escapism and existential angst, while its setting in the Westfjords of Iceland provided an almost surreal backdrop whose particularities of place are uniquely Icelandic. Bjorn Nordfjord�s examination of the film integrates the broad context and history of Icelandic cinema into a close reading of Noi the Albino�s themes, visual style, and key scenes. The book also includes an interview with director Dagur Kari.Noi the Albino�s successful negotiation of the tensions between the local and the global contribute to the film�s status as a contemporary classic. Its place within the history of Icelandic cinema highlights the specific problems this small nation faces as it pursues its filmmaking ambitions, allowing us to appreciate the remarkable success of Kari�s film in relation to the challenges of transnational filmmaking.
To Ellen Dissanayake, the arts are biologically evolved propensities of human nature: their fundamental features helped early humans adapt to their environment and reproduce themselves successfully over generations. In Art and Intimacy she argues for the joint evolutionary origin of art and intimacy, what we commonly call love.It all begins with the human trait of birthing immature and helpless infants. To ensure that mothers find their demanding babies worth caring for, humans evolved to be lovable and to attune themselves to others from the moment of birth. The ways in which mother and infant respond to each other are rhythmically patterned vocalizations and exaggerated face and body movements that Dissanayake calls rhythms and sensory modes.Rhythms and modes also give rise to the arts. Because humans are born predisposed to respond to and use rhythmic-modal signals, societies everywhere have elaborated them further as music, mime, dance, and display, in rituals which instill and reinforce valued cultural beliefs. Just as rhythms and modes coordinate and unify the mother-infant pair, in ceremonies they coordinate and unify members of a group.Today we humans live in environments very different from those of our ancestors. They used ceremonies (the arts) to address matters of serious concern, such as health, prosperity, and fecundity, that affected their survival. Now we tend to dismiss the arts, to see them as superfluous, only for an elite. But if we are biologically predisposed to participate in artlike behavior, then we actually need the arts. Even – or perhaps especially – in our fast-paced, sophisticated modern lives, the arts encourage us to show that we care about important things.
Ingmar Bergman's 1963 film The Silence was made at a point in his career when his stature as one of the great art-film directors allowed him to push beyond the boundaries of what was acceptable to censorship boards in Sweden and the United States. The film's depiction of sexuality was, as Judith Crist wrote at the time in the New York Herald-Tribune, «not for the prudish.» Yet Bergman's notebooks and screenplays reveal his tendency for self-censorship, both to dampen the literary quality of his screenwriting and to alter portions of the script that Bergman ultimately deemed too provocative.Maaret Koskinen, a professor of cinema studies and film critic for Sweden's largest national daily newspaper, was the first scholar given access to Bergman's private papers during the last years of his life. Bergman's notebooks reveal the difficulties he experienced in writing for the medium of moving images and his meditations on the relationship (or its lack) between moving images and the spoken or written word. Koskinen's attention to this intermedial framework is anchored in a close reading of the film, focusing on the many-faceted relationships between images and dialogue, music, sound, and silence.The Silence offers filmgoers an entryway into the cinematic, cultural, and sociopolitical issues of its time, but remains a classic – rich enough for scrutiny from a variety of perspectives and methodologies. Koskinen draws a picture of Bergman that challenges the traditional view of him as an auteur, revealing his attempts to overcome his own image as a creator of serious art films by making his work relevant to a new generation of filmgoers. Her exploration of the film touches on issues of censorship and the cinema of small nations, while shedding new light on the shifting views of Bergman and auteurist film, high art, and popular culture.
The essays incorporated into this volume share an ambitious interest in investigating death as an individual, social and metaphorical phenomenon that may be exemplified by themes involving burial rituals, identity, and commemoration. The disciplines represented are as diverse as art history, classics, history, music, languages and literatures, and the approaches taken reflect various aspects of contemporary death studies. These include the fear of death, the role of death in shaping human identity, the ‘taming’ of death through ritual or aesthetic sublimation, and the utilization of death – particularly dead bodies – to manipulate social and political ends. The topics covered include the exhumation and reburial of Cardinal John Henry Newman; the funerary monument of John Donne in his shroud; the funeral of Joseph Stalin; the theme of mutilation and non-burial of the corpse in Homer’s Iliad; the individual’s encounter with death in the work of the German Philosopher Josef Pieper; the Requiem by the Irish composer Charles Villiers Stanford; the imagery of death in Giovanni Verga’s novel Mastro-don Gesualdo, and the changing attitudes toward death in the writings of Michel Foucault.