This book presents a unique opportunity for constructing a consistent image of collaborative manual annotation for Natural Language Processing (NLP). NLP has witnessed two major evolutions in the past 25 years: firstly, the extraordinary success of machine learning, which is now, for better or for worse, overwhelmingly dominant in the field, and secondly, the multiplication of evaluation campaigns or shared tasks. Both involve manually annotated corpora, for the training and evaluation of the systems. These corpora have progressively become the hidden pillars of our domain, providing food for our hungry machine learning algorithms and reference for evaluation. Annotation is now the place where linguistics hides in NLP. However, manual annotation has largely been ignored for some time, and it has taken a while even for annotation guidelines to be recognized as essential. Although some efforts have been made lately to address some of the issues presented by manual annotation, there has still been little research done on the subject. This book aims to provide some useful insights into the subject. Manual corpus annotation is now at the heart of NLP, and is still largely unexplored. There is a need for manual annotation engineering (in the sense of a precisely formalized process), and this book aims to provide a first step towards a holistic methodology, with a global view on annotation.
There is a great transformation of the production of knowledge and intelligibility. The «digital fold of the world» (with the convergence of NBIC) affects the collective assemblages of “thought”, of research. The aims of these assemblages are also controversial issues. From a general standpoint, these debates concern “performative science and performative society”. But one emerges and strengthens that has several names: transhumanism, post-humanism, speculative post-humanism. It appears as a great narration, a large story about the future of our existence, facing our entry into the Anthropocene. It is also presented as a concrete utopia with an anthropological and technical change. In this book, we proposed to show how collective intelligences stand in the middle of the coupling of ontological horizons and of the “process of bio-technical maturation”.
This research attempts to explore and identify eventual relationships between the evolution of ERP systems and information systems integration or disintegration. The aim of this research is to know if the relationships between the ERP systems and the information systems are guided by certain factors and, as a result, to understand, more in-depth, the factors affecting these relationships. More precisely, this analysis aims to study whether assigned values given to these factors could guide the evolution of ERP systems in a manner that promotes IS integration; and if the opposite assigned values to these same factors could guide the evolution of ERP systems in a manner that provokes IS disintegration instead.
Digital practices are shaped by graphical representations that appear on the computer screen, which is the principal surface for designing, visualizing, and interacting with digital information. Before any digital image or graphical interface is rendered on the screen there is a series of layers that affect its visual properties. To discover such processes it is necessary to investigate software applications, graphical user interfaces, programming languages and code, algorithms, data structures, and data types in their relationship with graphical outcomes and design possibilities. This book studies interfaces as images and images as interfaces. It offers a comprehensible framework to study graphical representations of visual information. It explores the relationship between visual information and its graphical supports, taking into account contributions from fields of visual computing. Graphical supports are considered as material but also as formal aspects underlying the representation of digital images on the digital screen.
This book provides a scientific modeling approach for conducting metrics-based quantitative risk assessments of cybersecurity vulnerabilities and threats. This book provides a scientific modeling approach for conducting metrics-based quantitative risk assessments of cybersecurity threats. The author builds from a common understanding based on previous class-tested works to introduce the reader to the current and newly innovative approaches to address the maliciously-by-human-created (rather than by-chance-occurring) vulnerability and threat, and related cost-effective management to mitigate such risk. This book is purely statistical data-oriented (not deterministic) and employs computationally intensive techniques, such as Monte Carlo and Discrete Event Simulation. The enriched JAVA ready-to-go applications and solutions to exercises provided by the author at the book’s specifically preserved website will enable readers to utilize the course related problems. • Enables the reader to use the book's website's applications to implement and see results, and use them making ‘budgetary’ sense • Utilizes a data analytical approach and provides clear entry points for readers of varying skill sets and backgrounds • Developed out of necessity from real in-class experience while teaching advanced undergraduate and graduate courses by the author Cyber-Risk Informatics is a resource for undergraduate students, graduate students, and practitioners in the field of Risk Assessment and Management regarding Security and Reliability Modeling. Mehmet Sahinoglu, a Professor (1990) Emeritus (2000), is the founder of the Informatics Institute (2009) and its SACS-accredited (2010) and NSA-certified (2013) flagship Cybersystems and Information Security (CSIS) graduate program (the first such full degree in-class program in Southeastern USA) at AUM, Auburn University’s metropolitan campus in Montgomery, Alabama. He is a fellow member of the SDPS Society, a senior member of the IEEE, and an elected member of ISI. Sahinoglu is the recipient of Microsoft's Trustworthy Computing Curriculum (TCC) award and the author of Trustworthy Computing (Wiley, 2007).
Over the last few years, multi-touch mobile devices have become increasingly common. However, very few applications in the context of 3D geometry learning can be found in app stores. Manipulating a 3D scene with a 2D device is the main difficulty of such applications. Throughout this book, the author focuses on allowing young students to manipulate, observe and modify 3D scenes using new technologies brought about by digital tablets. Through a user-centered approach, the author proposes a grammar of interactions adapted to young learners, and then evaluates acceptability, ease of use and ease of learning of the interactions proposed. Finally, the author studies in situ the pedagogic benefits of the use of tablets with an app based on the suggested grammar. The results show that students are able to manipulate, observe and modify 3D scenes using an adapted set of interactions. Moreover, in the context of 3D geometry learning, a significant contribution has been observed in two classes when students use such an application. The approach here focuses on interactions with digital tablets to increase learning rather than on technology. First, defining which interactions allow pupils to realize tasks needed in the learning process, then, evaluating the impact of these interactions on the learning process. This is the first time that both interactions and the learning process have been taken into account at the same time.
Previous studies have looked at the contribution of information technology and network theory to the art of warfare as understood in the broader sense. This book, however, focuses on an area particularly important in understanding the significance of the information revolution; its impact on strategic theory. The purpose of the book is to critically analyze the contributions and challenges that the spread of information technologies can bring to categories of classic strategic theory. In the first two chapters, the author establishes the context of the book, coming back to the epistemology of revolution in military affairs and its terminology. The third chapter examines the political bases of strategic action and operational strategy, before the next two chapters focus on historical construction of the process of getting to know your opponents and the way in which we consider information collection. Chapter 6 returns to the process of “informationalization” in the doctrine of armed forces, especially in Western countries, and methods of conducting network-centric warfare. The final chapter looks at the attempts of Western countries to adapt to the emergence of techno-guerrillas and new forms of hybrid warfare, and the resulting socio-strategic outcomes.
The first comprehensive guide to discovering and preventing attacks on the Android OS As the Android operating system continues to increase its share of the smartphone market, smartphone hacking remains a growing threat. Written by experts who rank among the world's foremost Android security researchers, this book presents vulnerability discovery, analysis, and exploitation tools for the good guys. Following a detailed explanation of how the Android OS works and its overall security architecture, the authors examine how vulnerabilities can be discovered and exploits developed for various system components, preparing you to defend against them. If you are a mobile device administrator, security researcher, Android app developer, or consultant responsible for evaluating Android security, you will find this guide is essential to your toolbox. A crack team of leading Android security researchers explain Android security risks, security design and architecture, rooting, fuzz testing, and vulnerability analysis Covers Android application building blocks and security as well as debugging and auditing Android apps Prepares mobile device administrators, security researchers, Android app developers, and security consultants to defend Android systems against attack Android Hacker's Handbook is the first comprehensive resource for IT professionals charged with smartphone security.
Discover How Electronic Health Records Are Built to Drive the Next Generation of Healthcare Delivery The increased role of IT in the healthcare sector has led to the coining of a new phrase «health informatics,» which deals with the use of IT for better healthcare services. Health informatics applications often involve maintaining the health records of individuals, in digital form, which is referred to as an Electronic Health Record (EHR). Building and implementing an EHR infrastructure requires an understanding of healthcare standards, coding systems, and frameworks. This book provides an overview of different health informatics resources and artifacts that underlie the design and development of interoperable healthcare systems and applications. Electronic Health Record: Standards, Coding Systems, Frameworks, and Infrastructures compiles, for the first time, study and analysis results that EHR professionals previously had to gather from multiple sources. It benefits readers by giving them an understanding of what roles a particular healthcare standard, code, or framework plays in EHR design and overall IT-enabled healthcare services along with the issues involved. This book on Electronic Health Record: Offers the most comprehensive coverage of available EHR Standards including ISO, European Union Standards, and national initiatives by Sweden, the Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and many others Provides assessment of existing standards Includes a glossary of frequently used terms in the area of EHR Contains numerous diagrams and illustrations to facilitate comprehension Discusses security and reliability of data
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