In this book, the authors focus on the concrete aspects of IoT (Internet of Things): the daily operation, on the ground, of this domain, including concrete and detailed discussion of the designs, applications and realizations of Secure Connected Things and IoT. As experts in the development of RFID and IoT technologies, the authors offer the reader a highly technical discussion of these topics, including the many approaches (technical, security, safety, ergonomic, economic, normative, regulations, etc.) involved in Secure Connected Objects projects. This book is written both for readers wishing to familiarize themselves with the complex issues surrounding networking objects and for those who design these connective «things».
This book analyses the development of Collective Intelligence by a better knowledge of the diversity of the temperaments and behavioural and relational processes. The purpose is to help the reader become a better Collective Intelligence Leader, who will be able to capitalize on the specificities and the differences of the individuals present in its collective, and transform these differences into complementarities, which are a source of wealth.
This book explores the impact of information systems on the management of North–South asymmetric strategic alliances through a series of in-depth case studies which analyze different types of partnerships. Positioned at the heart of the value creation process, the choice of information system seems to be becoming a strategic issue which should be centered not only on the organizational decisions related to the type of alliance but also the management systems of each of the partners. The authors provide an understanding of the nature of this relationship between the organizational structure and the method of information system integration in asymmetric alliances. The in-depth analysis of strategic alliance case-studies illustrates the different methods of information system integration, which are themselves linked to the organisational and structural choices of the alliance. These methods are characterized by information-sharing and coordination mechanisms as well as the balance of control over shared activities developed by the distinct partners.
This book aims to extract the «molecular genes» leading to craziness! Geniuses are the ones who are «crazy enough to think they can change the world» and boldly go where no one has gone before. Where no past habit and usage are available, there is no proof of viability, as nobody has done it yet, or even imagined it, and no roadmap for guidance or market study has come up with it. The authors call upon Leonardo Da Vinci, the Renaissance genius, who as strange as it seems, shared many traits of personality with that of Steve Jobs, in terms of the ways of performing. Da Vinci helps in understanding Jobs, and hence Apple, with his unique way of designing radically novel concepts, which were actually quite crazy for his time. In order to shed light on a special creative posture, the indomitable sense of specifying undecidable objects – a hallmark of the late Steve Jobs – is what led the authors to match it with a specific design innovation theory. A real theory, backed by solid mathematical proof, exists and can account for the business virtue of a prolific ability to move into unknown crazy fields! The authors postulate that, by bringing the power of C-K theory to crack open a number of previous observations made about Apple’s methods, it is possible to identify most of the genes of this company. The authors analyze how and why an Apple way of doing business is radically different from standard business practices and why it is so successful. Genes are a measure of the entity at hand and can encourage past business education routine approaches, then become transferable across the spectrum of the socio-economic world.
Constrained optimization is a challenging branch of operations research that aims to create a model which has a wide range of applications in the supply chain, telecommunications and medical fields. As the problem structure is split into two main components, the objective is to accomplish the feasible set framed by the system constraints. The aim of this book is expose optimization problems that can be expressed as graphs, by detailing, for each studied problem, the set of nodes and the set of edges. This graph modeling is an incentive for designing a platform that integrates all optimization components in order to output the best solution regarding the parameters' tuning. The authors propose in their analysis, for optimization problems, to provide their graphical modeling and mathematical formulation and expose some of their variants. As a solution approaches, an optimizer can be the most promising direction for limited-size instances. For large problem instances, approximate algorithms are the most appropriate way for generating high quality solutions. The authors thus propose, for each studied problem, a greedy algorithm as a problem-specific heuristic and a genetic algorithm as a metaheuristic.
This book argues for a prospective turn in ergonomics to challenge the established fields of strategic design (SD) and management. Its multi-disciplinary outlook builds upon concepts derived from Management, Innovation and Design Science. Differences, similarities and relationships between strategic design and prospective ergonomics are reviewed using existing theories and frameworks from design, ergonomics, and strategic and innovation management. To complement the theory, 12 cases have been analyzed in greater depth according to 4 main dimensions of analysis. Outcomes have shown that innovating through the Prospective Ergonomics (PE) approach is about finding the right balance between, on the one hand, meeting primary objectives such as profit maximization or solving the design problem, and on the other, acknowledging that human activity is bounded by rationality. This means that humans have diverse motives.
Digital information and communication technologies can be seen as a threat to privacy, a step forward for freedom of expression and communication, a tool in the fight against terrorism or the source of a new economic wealth. Computerization has unexpectedly progressed beyond our imagination, from a tool of management and control into one of widespread communication and expression. This book revisits the major questions that have emerged with the progress of computerization over nearly half a century, by describing the context in which these issues were formulated. By taking a social and digital approach, the author explores controversial issues surrounding the development of this «digital revolution», including freedom and privacy of the individual, social control, surveillance, public security and the economic exploitation of personal data. From students, teachers and researchers engaged in data analysis, to institutional decision-makers and actors in policy or business, all members of today's digital society will take from this book a better understanding of the essential issues of the current «digital revolution».
Information and communication technologies have increased their share of services in contemporary economic exchanges. We are witnessing a transformation of modern economies characterized by a predominant role of information and knowledge in the production of wealth. In order to make this intangible resource bear fruit, organizations are looking for ways, methods, procedures, processes and technical solutions to efficiently manage knowledge Within a framework of research into synergies and resource interdependence, organizations also rely on strategic alliances (joint venture), mergers or other legal forms of association that have an impact on knowledge management. This book explores the range of knowledge management techniques.
The first goal of this book is to extend Two Minds originating from behavioral economics to the domain of interaction, where the time dimension has to be dealt with rigorously; in human–machine interaction, it is of crucial importance how synchronization between conscious processes and unconscious processes is established for a sense of smoothness, and how memory processes and action selection processes are coordinated. The first half this book describes the theory in detail. The book begins by outlining the whole view of the theory consisting of action selection processes and memorization processes, and their interactions. Then, a detailed description for action selection processes theorized as a nonlinear dynamic human behavior model with real-time constraints is provided, followed by a description for memorization processes. Also, implications of the theory to human–machine interactions are discussed. The second goal of this book is to provide a methodology to study how Two Minds works in practice when people use interactive systems. The latter half of this book describes theory practices in detail. A new methodology called Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE) is introduced, which adds the time dimension to Hutchins’ Cognitive Ethnography, in order to practice «know the users» systematically by designing user studies based on a simulation of users’ mental operations controlled by Two Minds. The author then shows how CCE has been applied to understanding the ways in which people navigate in real physical environments by walking and by car, respectively, and explores the possibility of applying CCE to predict people’s future needs. This is not for understanding how people use interfaces at present but to predict how people want to use the interfaces in the future given they are currently using them in a certain way Finally, the book concludes by describing implications of human–machine interactions that are carried out while using modern artefacts for people's cognitive development from birth, on the basis of the theories of action selection and memorization.
This book discusses the media, beliefs, the news, the Internet, etc. but it should not be seen as yet another critique of the media system, exploring with indignant fascination the idea of a machination against truth set up to serve a society of domination. These kinds of theories, whether they pertain to conspiracy theories or, more subtly, to a self-styled «critical» way of thinking, have always seemed to be the expression of a form of intellectual puerility. This is not to say that attempts at manipulating opinions do not occur, or that our world is free from compromised principles, or indeed corruption; far from it, but none of this is the key issue. In fact, reality can somehow be even more unsettling than those myths, however sophisticated they may be, that envisage the media system hand-in-hand with industry, science, and so forth, all in agreement so as to lead the «people» away from the truth. It is more unsettling because the processes described in this book and that allow falsehood and dubiousness to take hold of the public sphere are boosted by the development of IT, the workings of our minds, and the very nature of democracy. And finally, it is more unsettling because we are all responsible for what is going to happen to us.