Digital models based on data from medical images have recently become widespread in the field of biomechanics. This book summarizes medical imaging techniques and processing procedures, both of which are necessary for creating bone models with finite element methods. Chapter 1 introduces the main principles and the application of the most commonly used medical imaging techniques. Chapter 2 describes the major methods and steps of medical image analysis and processing. Chapter 3 presents a brief review of recent studies on reconstructed finite element bone models, based on medical images. Finally, Chapter 4 reveals the digital results obtained for the main bone sites that have been targeted by finite element modeling in recent years.